Jakarta (/dʒəˈkɑːrtə/;[note 1] formerly named Sunda Kelapa, Jayakarta and Batavia), officially the Special Capital Region of Jakarta, is the capital and most populous city of Indonesia. Located on the northwest coast of the world’s most populous island of Java, the city is the center of economics, culture and politics of Indonesia, with a population of 10,075,310 as of 2014. The Greater Jakarta metropolitan area, known as Jabodetabek (a name formed by combining the initial syllables of Jakarta, Bogor, Depok, Tangerang and Bekasi), is the second largest in the world, with population of 30,214,303 inhabitants as of 2010 census.Jakarta’s business opportunities, as well as its potential to offer a higher standard of living, attract migrants from all over Indonesian archipelago, making the city a melting pot of many communities and cultures.
Established in the fourth century, the city became an important trading port for the Kingdom of Sunda. It was the de facto capital of the Dutch East Indies (known as Batavia at that time). The city is currently the seat of the ASEAN Secretariat as well as important financial institutions such as the Bank of Indonesia, the Indonesia Stock Exchange, and the corporate headquarters of numerous Indonesian companies and multinational corporations. As of 2017, six of Forbes Global 2000 companies have headquarter in the city. The city is also home for two of Fortune 500 companies in 2016.
Jakarta is listed as an Alpha Global City in the 2016 Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network (GaWC) research. Based on the global metro monitor by the Brookings Institution, in 2014, economic growth in Jakarta ranked 34th among the world’s 200 largest cities. Jakarta has grown more rapidly than Kuala Lumpur, Beijing, and Bangkok.
Jakarta is located on the northwest coast of Java, at the mouth of the Ciliwung River on Jakarta Bay, which is an inlet of the Java Sea. It is one of the only two Asian capital cities located in the southern hemisphere (the other one is Dili, capital of Timor Leste). Officially, the area of the Jakarta Special District is 662 km2 (256 sq mi) of land area and 6,977 km2 (2,694 sq mi) of sea area. The Thousand Islands, which are administratively a part of Jakarta, are located in Jakarta Bay, north of the city. Jakarta lies in a low, flat basin, ranged from −2 to 50 metres (−7 to 164 ft) with average elevation 8 metres (26 ft) above sea level; 40% of Jakarta, particularly the northern areas, is below sea level, while the southern parts are comparatively hilly. Rivers flow from the Puncak highlands to the south of the city, across the city northwards towards the Java Sea; the most important[clarification needed] is the Ciliwung River, which divides the city into the western and eastern principalities. Other rivers include the Pesanggrahan, and Sunter.
All these rivers, combined with the wet season rains and insufficient drainage due to clogging, make Jakarta prone to flooding. Moreover, Jakarta is sinking about 5 to 10 centimetres (2.0 to 3.9 inches) each year, even up to 20 centimetres (7.9 inches) in the northern coastal areas. To help cope with the threat from the sea, the Netherlands will give $4 million for a feasibility study to build a dike around Jakarta Bay. The ring dike will be equipped with a pumping system and retention areas to defend against seawater. Additionally, the dike will function as a toll road. The project will be built by 2025. In January 2014, Central Government agreed to build 2 dams in Ciawi, Bogor and a 1.2-kilometre (0.75-mile) tunnel from Ciliwung River to Cisadane River to ease Jakarta floods. Construction costs will be paid by Central Government, but land acquisitions is responsibility of Jakarta Authority. Nowadays, an 1.2-kilometre (0.75-mile), with capacity 60 cubic metres (2,100 cubic feet) per second, underground water tunnel between Ciliwung River and East Flood Canal is being worked to ease Ciliwung River overflows.